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Complex post-traumatic stress disorder is PTSD plus problems managing your emotions and relationships.

The symptoms of PTSD are when a person involuntarily and vividly relives a traumatic event in the form of flashbacks, nightmares, or disturbing images combined with pain, sweating, feeling sick or trembling.

Complex PTSD includes feelings of being worthless, shame or guilt. You are unable to control your emotions. This also leads to difficulty in connecting with other people and trouble retaining friends and life partners.

A primary cause of complex PTSD is childhood abuse or neglect. This includes domestic violence, sexual abuse, torture, sex trafficking, or slavery and war. You are more likely to develop complex PTSD if you experienced trauma at a young age, were harmed by someone close to you who you trusted and you were unable to escape the trauma.

Therapies used to treat PTSD are trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR). You might need treatment for other problems you may have, such as depression or alcohol addiction.

Cognitive therapy

Cognitive therapy is a form of psychotherapy that was developed in America in the middle of the 20th century. Cognitive therapy is part of a larger group of therapies known as cognitive behavioral therapy, as many of the techniques that were devised for use in cognitive therapy are now practiced with a number of other behavioral techniques.

The main principle of cognitive therapy is to uncover and alter any of the negative thought patterns and behaviors that are inherent in all people, especially when these thoughts and behaviors occur as the result of trigger situations. In cognitive therapy, people are taught to accept their negative thoughts and behavioral patterns as they occur, in order to challenge these thoughts, rethink them and, ultimately, to deal with them in more productive ways.

Cognitive therapy works on the premise of changing undesirable thoughts and beliefs and, ultimately, behavior. In cognitive therapy, people are encouraged to identify their limiting beliefs and helped to change them, so that they can become more effective and productive in their daily existence.

Assessing Treatment and Therapy Options in Speech and Language Pathology

Speech and language therapists assess, diagnose and treat patients who present a wide range of issues related to speech, language, voice, swallowing and verbal communication. Speech therapists work with people who cannot produce speech sounds clearly, or in some cases, at all. These therapists work with people who have speech rhythm and fluency issues, i.e., stuttering. They also work with people who have voice disorders or those who have problems understanding and producing normal language patterns. Speech therapists also help those who want to improve their communication skills or lack of attention, memory or problem-solving skills. These professional therapists also work with people who have swallowing difficulties.

What is mental illness?

Mental illness is the term used to describe a number of mental health conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, addictive behaviors, eating and anxiety disorders. The common denominator for all of these conditions is that they affect the way in which a person with mental illness feels, thinks and behaves on a daily basis.

Many people experience troubling periods in their lives that negatively affect the way they think and feel. If this condition or symptoms associated with this condition persist for a long time or become so overwhelming that a person is unable to function, a mental illness of some kind may be diagnosed.